Granting the access to the authorized person to a certain premise and keeping the track record of such entries along with maintaining the database; this entire process sums the terminology, Access Control System (ACS). Traditionally, what started as manual entries in the register and keeping a book to track the record of such logs by utilizing various entities for the identification of such lot has reached the peak of technology advancement in the recent times. ACS is a process of identification & restriction method that can be used anywhere, i.e. door, parking gate, turnstile, elevator, operation of heavy machinery, etc.
What is Access Control System? How does it operate?
Access Control can be simply put out into below stages to understand it better:
Creating the data record of the authorised personnel
Comparison of the input/entry with the existing data
Giving out the Positive/Negative Results
In case of positive input, the person is allowed to enter the parameter. In case the entry is denied, depending on the security concern level of the parameter, the access is denied/door does not open or the alarm is triggered.
What begs the question is that how a system determines the authenticity of the user? The answer lies in three kinds of informational database:
What a person knows i.e., PIN, Password
What a person possesses to identify himself i.e., RFID Tags, Badge, etc
What are the person’s unique parameters that distinguish him from others, i.e., biometrics
Technologies used for Access Control:
In the beginning of the Access control solution, the data storage & compilation had to be done manually for each individual. For example, before the access control machines were developed, the security sensitive locations had to enforce men power to keep the documentation of entry by verifying their identity proofs/badges and any sort of forced entries were man handled. With the upcoming technologies in this area, access control started using different methodologies that include PIN/Password, RFID tags & Biometrics. Every access control system is a set up combination of hardware & software for the storage of the information of each user, and is typically attached to a door (entry/exit points). When a user provides information to verify, the system compares the entered input to the existing database until it finds a match. Once the positive match is achieved, the machine that is connected to an electromagnetic lock on the door permits the user to enter the premise.
The involvement of biometrics in access control applications has changed the entire game of security solutions lately. Prominent biometrics technologies such as facial recognition, fingerprint, IRIS have played essential role not only in diversifying the access control solutions, but have proved to be booming by providing better security outcomes and lesser glitches. To enhance the security prospect & achieve a glitch-free system, the combination of the above methodologies is used, rather known as Multi-Authentication Factor. Any combination of the said terminologies reduces the risk of impersonation theft, improves the quality of the outcome & makes the comparison process from the database faster. However, the access control is not limiting itself to industrial solutions but has strongly paved the ways towards residential applications as well. The access control with conditional responses such as Burglar Alerts, Fire Alarms where in case of illicit forced entries, the owner gets alerts or notifications or a system behaves in a manner where the negative outcome results into an act of prevention of access,completely defying the conventional norms associated with Access Control.
Military Operations, Sensitive Laboratory Access
Airport Security Management
Industrial applications to restrict & maintain the limited access to heavy machinery
Corporate Office Environment
Home Automation& Security Systems